Origin[ edit ] During the early stages of World War I insoldiers from the British Expeditionary Force began to report medical symptoms after combat, including tinnitusamnesiaheadachesdizziness, tremorsand hypersensitivity to noise. While these symptoms resembled those that would be expected after a physical wound to the brain, many of those reporting sick showed no signs of head wounds. The term was first published in in an article in The Lancet by Charles Myers. Some doctors held the view that it was a result of hidden physical damage to the brain, with the shock waves from bursting shells creating a cerebral lesion that caused the symptoms and could potentially prove fatal.
Posted on February 17, by Scott Alexander I got many good responses to my Considerations On Cost Disease post, both in the comments and elsewhere. A lot of people thought the explanation was obvious; unfortunately, they all disagreed on what the obvious explanation was.
Below are some of the responses I found most interesting. So, what is really happening? I think Scott nearly gets there. Things cost 10 times as much, 10 times more than they used to and Underlying causes of wwi times more than in other countries.
So where is it going? The number of people it takes to produce these goods is skyrocketing. Labor productivity — number of people per quality adjusted output — declined by a factor of 10 in these areas.
It pretty much has to be that: How can that happen? Our machines are better than ever, as Scott points out. Well, we and especially we economists pay too much attention to snazzy gadgets. Productivity depends on organizations not just on gadgets.
Southwest figured out how to turn an airplane around in 20 minutes, and it still takes United an hour. Contrariwise, I think we know where the extra people are. Most large public school systems spend more than half their budget on administrators.
Construction sites have always had a lot of people standing around for every one actually working the machine. But now for every person operating the machine there is an army of planners, regulators, lawyers, administrative staff, consultants and so on. I welcome pointers to good graphs and numbers on this sort of thing.
So, my bottom line: Well, how does bloat come about? Regulations and law are, as Scott mentions, part of the problem.
These are all areas either run by the government or with large government involvement. But the real key is, I think lack of competition. These are above all areas with not much competition. The main effect of our regulatory and legal system is not so much to directly raise costs, as it is to lessen competition that is often its purpose.
The lack of competition leads to the cost disease. Everywhere we see businesses protected from competition, especially highly regulated businesses, we see the cost disease spreading.
And it spreads largely by forcing companies to hire loads of useless people. Yes, technical regress can happen. Productivity depends as much on the functioning of large organizations, and the overall legal and regulatory system in which they operate, as it does on gadgets.
Like our ancestors peer at the buildings, aqueducts, dams, roads, and bridges put up by our ancestors, whether Roman or American, and wonder just how they did it.
Before the hedonic treadmill kicks in, and he decides to waste all the money on higher rent and nicer cars, he changes his diet. And steak is a superior good.
But how many times a week will people eat steak? Americans as a whole got really rich in the s and s, and needed someplace to start spending their newfound wealth.
What do people spend extra money on? The Atlantic had a piece on this several years ago, with the following chart: The other big change the article discusses is that after or so, everyone got cars, and commuted from their more expensive suburban houses — which is effectively an implicit increase in housing cost.
Limitless Demand, Invisible Supply There are only a few things that we have a limitless demand for, but very limited ability to judge the impact of our spending. So we pour money into these sectors.Austria was the most reactionary country on the face of the earth.
The Austrian Hapsburgs were the bulwark of the Papacy for over 1, years, and they were still smarting from the loss of the Papal States. NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE Ed Friedlander, M.D., Pathologist [email protected] No texting or chat messages, please.
Ordinary e-mails are welcome. Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term). It is a reaction to the intensity of the bombardment and fighting that produced a helplessness appearing variously as panic and being scared, flight, or an inability to reason, sleep, walk or talk.
THE LETHAL SCIENCE OF SPLENDA, A POISONOUS CHLOROCARBON By James Bowen, M.D. Posted: 08 May James Bowen, M.D., A physician, biochemist, and survivor of aspartame poisoning warns about yet another synthetic sweetener, Splenda.
I got many good responses to my Considerations On Cost Disease post, both in the comments and elsewhere. A lot of people thought the explanation was obvious; unfortunately, they all disagreed on what the obvious explanation was.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood.
It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning.