Kuhn, an industrial engineer, and Minette Stroock Kuhn, both Jewish.
A Role for History.
Kuhn begins by formulating some assumptions that lay the foundation for subsequent discussion and by briefly outlining the key contentions of the book. A scientific community cannot practice its trade without some set of received beliefs p.
These beliefs form the foundation of the "educational initiation that prepares and licenses the student for professional practice" 5.
The nature of the "rigorous and rigid" preparation helps ensure that the received beliefs exert a "deep hold" on the student's mind. To this end, "normal science often suppresses fundamental novelties because they are necessarily subversive of its basic commitments" 5.
Research is "a strenuous and devoted attempt to force nature into the conceptual boxes supplied by professional education" 5. A shift in professional commitments to shared assumptions takes place when an anomaly "subverts the existing tradition of scientific practice" 6.
This is difficult and time consuming. It is also strongly resisted by the established community. When a shift takes place, "a scientist's world is qualitatively transformed [and] quantitatively enriched by fundamental novelties of either fact or theory" 7. In this chapter, Kuhn describes how paradigms are created and what they contribute to scientific disciplined inquiry.
Normal science "means research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice" These achievements must be sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity and sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners and their students to resolve, i.
These achievements can be called paradigms Students study these paradigms in order to become members of the particular scientific community in which they will later practice. Because the student largely learns from and is mentored by researchers "who learned the bases of their field from the same concrete models" 11there is seldom disagreement over fundamentals.
Men whose research is based on shared paradigms are committed to the same rules and standards for scientific practice A shared commitment to a paradigm ensures that its practitioners engage in the paradigmatic observations that its own paradigm can do most to explain 13i.
How are paradigms created, and how do scientific revolutions take place? Inquiry begins with a random collection of "mere facts" although, often, a body of beliefs is already implicit in the collection.
During these early stages of inquiry, different researchers confronting the same phenomena describe and interpret them in different ways In time, these descriptions and interpretations entirely disappear.The aim of this essay is to provide a summary and critique of Thomas S.
Kuhn’s groundbreaking thesis ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.’. Thomas Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolution. About Thomas Kuhn and this essay Born in in Cincinnati, Kuhn obtained a Ph.D. degree in physics from Harvard University in He will later teach a course of history of science at the University of California, Berkeley.
- The aim of this essay is to provide a summary and critique of Thomas S. Kuhn’s groundbreaking thesis ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.’ This will be done by analyzing his concepts of ‘paradigm’, ‘normal science’ and ‘scientific revolutions.’.
Thomas Kuhn: the Structure of Scientific Revolution Essay Sample. About Thomas Kuhn and this essay. Born in in Cincinnati, Kuhn obtained a Ph.D. degree in physics from Harvard University in In “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” Thomas Kuhn argues that normal science inevitably runs into a crisis.
Why is it necessarily the case? Is there a way to avoid scientific crises? In Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm cycle, normal science inevitably leads to an anomaly, which eventually leads into a crisis.
Excerpt from Essay: Thomas Kuhn () was an American scientist, historian and philosopher who wrote a controversial book in called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.