One of the farms in the pilot project found that increasing the survival rate of lambs by just 5 per cent brought in enough extra income to cover the costs of setting up and running the health plan.
Priority has therefore been given to a range of measures for run-off and soil erosion control. One such measure, the use of stone bunds built on natural contour lines, has been promoted and supported by governments, NGOs, extension agents and farmers for more than 25 years and is now widely used in the Sahel.
The best results are often achieved when contour stone bunds are used in combination with the planting of grass and trees on the contour lines. In wetter years they help to reduce the climate-induced risk of run-off and erosion.
In drier years, they contribute to effective rainwater harvesting. In addition, since heavy rainfall events in the Sahel are projected to increase with global warming, durable and effective soil erosion control structures will assume even greater importance and constitute an important adaptation measure.
Impacts and lessons learned Region-wide, it is estimated that aboutha of land has been reclaimed. However, contour stone bunds are labour intensive and costly. However, this required the quarrying and transport of 2.
Nevertheless, they have proven to be both highly effective and durable and often act as a catalyst for additional innovations such as tree or grass planting on the bunds, as well as increased levels of nutrient inputs on field crops.
Neither practices based solely on mineral fertilizers nor solely on organic matter management are sufficient for sustainable agricultural production. Well-adapted, disease- and pest-resistant germplasm is necessary to make efficient use of available nutrients.
Good agronomic practices - in terms of planting dates, planting densities, and weeding - are essential for ensuring the efficient use of scarce nutrient resources.
In addition to these principles, ISFM recognizes the need to target nutrient resources within crop rotation cycles, preferably including legumes, thus going beyond recommendations for single crops.
What's more, a positive synergistic effect between organic and inorganic inputs is often observed. As a result, the efficiency of rainfall-use is greatly enhanced. IFSM advocates strategic timing and placement when using inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers, often at rates that are much lower than recommendations based on the sole use of inorganic fertilizers.
This contributes to mitigation through reduced nitrous oxide emissions. For example, in Malawi, about 30, farmers, as well as several hundred farmer associations and agricultural extension workers, have been trained in ISFM technologies Nyasimi et al.
However, for widespread adoption to occur, an enabling environment must be created through: Governments that acts as enablers for fertilizer imports. An effective extension service, able to deliver the technology to the farmers. A vibrant agro-dealer private sector that ensures efficient fertilizer and seed availability and distribution.
This is necessary due to the variability that exists between farms.
Each and every farm is distinguished in terms of farmer goals, farm size, labour availability, ownership of livestock, importance of off-farm income, as well as in the amount of production resources such as cash, crop residues and animal manures that different farming families are able to invest in their farm.
More recently, it has become widely promoted and adopted in Latin America.
In Africa, however, adoption rates by small-scale farmers has been slower and more context specific FAO CA is based on three principles Richards et al. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover: Use of crop rotations: Crop rotation, ideally with legumes, helps reduce build-up of weeds, pests and diseases.
Where farmers do not have enough land to rotate crops, intercropping can be used. Relationship to CSA CA supports adaptation through reduced risk of rainfall run-off and soil erosion and can help buffer against drought through increased storage of water in the soil profile.
CA can mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration in the soil, though this benefit may not be as large on a global level as has been hoped Richards et al. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were also achieved Ladha et al.
Insufficient quantity of residues and the need for crop residues as livestock feed. Fertilizers are sometimes necessary as a complement to legume residues in order to increase crop yields and the available quantity of crop residues.
Weeds are a major challenge in smallholder cropping systems. Many adaptations of CA use herbicides to control weeds. While CA can increase yields in the long term, farmers may need to wait 3 to 7 years to see such increases.Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, More than 10 percent of the populations of seven Mexica states fall into the category of Serious Food Insecurity.
Diseases affecting livestock or crops can have devastating effects on food availability especially if there are no contingency plans in place. This section introduces a range of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices and technologies within seven entry points for CSA; soil management, crop management, water management, livestock management, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, and energy monstermanfilm.comces are understood broadly as ways of doing things, for example, precision farming, tillage, and fertilization; these are all.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.
The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. Botswana accepts that food self-sufficiency is neither achievable nor sustainable.
Therefore, its objectives are to improve food security at both household and national levels by giving top priority to production systems and programmes that are sustainable, .