Synthesis and conclusion of the thesis Rephrasing main topic and subtopics. Think small; build the full essay gradually.
It may even feel senseless and meaningless to the person afflicted with symptoms. In " The Primate Basal Ganglia: Parallel and Integrative Networks "Suzanne N.
Haber explains that "The basal ganglia [corpus striata complex] and frontal cortex operate together to execute goal directed behaviors. Here, I will combine my words with some of Haber's concepts: Amygdala-labeled emotions combine with dopamine-powered motivation to produce an impetus that the frontal cortex shapes via cognition to organize and plan strategy to shape motor output.
We can begin to better understand how dysfunctions occur when we better understand how normal behavior is engendered. Regarding normal, primate behavior, including human behavior, Haber writes: The components of the frontal cortex that mediate these behaviors are reflected in the organization, physiology, and connections between areas of frontal cortex and in their projections through basal ganglia circuits.
This comprises a series of parallel pathways. However, this model does not address how information flows between circuits thereby developing new learned behaviors or actions from a combination of inputs from emotional, cognitive, and motor cortical areas. Recent anatomical evidence from primates demonstrates that the neuro-networks within basal ganglia pathways are in a position to move information across functional circuits.
Within each of these sets of connected structures, there are both reciprocal connections linking up regions associated with similar functions and non-reciprocal connections linking up regions that are associated with different cortical basal ganglia circuits.
Each component of information from limbic to motor outcome sends both feedback connection, and also a feedforward connection, allowing the transfer of information. Information is channeled from limbic, to cognitive, to motor circuits.
Action decision-making processes are thus influenced by motivation and cognitive inputs, allowing the animal to respond appropriate to environmental cues.
In this section, we will discuss and clarify the structures and neurocircuitry involved in the parallel circuits Haber describes above. On this page, I have borrowed several images of coronal sections of human brain from a Washington University in St.
Diana Weedman Molavi created the tutorial. In these coronal sections, the myelin part of the tissue has been stained. So instead of its natural white appearance, in these particular images, the myelin appears black.
The diagram to the right depicting coronal, horizontal, and saggital planes is also from the WUStL tutorial. Up is up and down is down. The brain's development of emotive and motor functions: In Part 1 of MyBrainNotes.
The authors describe how the amygdalae create a salience landscape, a kind of directory that encodes the emotional significance of everything in an individual's environment.
The emotion-packed interconnections between the amygdalae and the corpus striata complex figure prominently in the development of behavior including dysfunctional symptoms. In " Neuropsychiatry of the Basal Ganglia "H.
Serra-Mestres explain the important anatomical links between structures governing emotive functions the amygdala and hippocampus and structures prompting subsequent motor functions the corpus striata complex, also called the basal ganglia. Carpenter's book, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy.
The basal ganglia develop as part of the telencephalon, from the basal region of the mantle layer of the primitive telencephalic vesicle and the amygdala complex develops from the same tissue mass as the caudate nucleus.
Regarding the telencephalon, a forebrain structure, you may wish to review a previous discussion of brain development in Part 1 of MyBrainNotes. My take on the observations of Ring and Serra-Mestres is that both emotive and motor functions are essential components of our being.
Without one or the other, we are neither human, primate, nor mammal. The globus pallidus and nucleus accumbens: In the image to the right from the Washington University in St.
In the image below, the putamen and nucleus accumbens on the left partially block the view of the more deeply recessed globus pallidus. I have added the labeling here. To see an unlabeled version and to practice identifying structures, click on the image.Make a reply for that intriguing report that demonstrates that you look into the disputes and principles.
Also, the essay well timed needs you’ll like to imply a number of complex ways of . OCD explained in terms of brain anatomy including limbic structures such as the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid - GABA - and parallel cortical-subcortical circuits.
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Writing research papers has become inevitable while in college. This is because, in each module that you study, you are expected to do a research to prompt your thinking and reasoning. Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc.
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