Sources The main sources for the reign of Aurelian were written about one hundred years afterwards, in the second half of the 4th century: Aurelius Victor whose description is partly lost []Eutropius and the Historia Augusta, a collection of imperial biographies which combines fiction and fact []. Two Byzantine sources, Zosimus 5th-6th century and Zonaras 11thth centuryare also very important for Aurelian's reign. Inscriptions and coins provide additional information.
What is the Byzantine Greek Catholic Church? The history is traced in unbroken continuity back to Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. The primacy of the Catholic Church was begun with the martyrdom of Peter and Paul; the succession of bishops continues unbroken to our present day.
The Pope, as head of the Catholic Church, has many titles. The most familiar rite of the church is the Latin or Roman rite. However, there are over 20 rites within the Catholic Church. All are connected by their allegiance with the Holy See which started with the primacy of Saint Peter.
The largest of the eastern rites is the Byzantine Rite. The Byzantine liturgy is based on the service developed by Saint James for the Antiochian church.
From here the faith spread as far as western Ukraine. In the regions further east the faith was received in the year Their never ending ties to the See of Peter were formalized in at the Union of Brest in Lithuania and reaffirmed in at the Union of Uzhorod.
The church has her own hierarchy i. The head of the Byzantine Catholic Church in America is called a metropolitan.
This change sought to identify the rite with its liturgical origins from Byzantium. The Byzantine Catholic Church is steeped in a rich tradition and retains her distinctive features.
Baptism and Chrismation i. Confirmation are performed at the same time, Holy Communion is received under both forms given by the priest from the chalice on a spoon. Confession can be face to face or within a confessional. The Sacrament of Holy Unction called the Last Rites at times by both Latin and Eastern Rites is not only for those who are dying, but, for those who are experiencing illness.
Some differences from the Roman rite and the Byzantine rite are the Byzantine Catholic Church operates under a different code of canon law.
The church also has a different liturgical year with distinctive feasts and saints.
There are additional Lenten fasting periods such as the Nativity i. While the Roman Rite liturgical year begins on the first Sunday of Advent, the Byzantine Catholic liturgical year begins on September 1st. Also, while a celibate clergy is standard for the Roman Rite, in the Byzantine Catholic Church married clergy were the tradition.
In the United States this practice was discontinued but in Eastern Europe it remained. Inthe Holy Father reintroduced the married priesthood for America.
While these practices are identified with the Latin Rite, they were gladly incorporated and are endearing to the faithful of the Byzantine Rite. It is interesting to note in many Roman Catholic churches the beauty of icons have become popular and are displayed for veneration.
This is one such example of adapting worship practices within the universal church.
On each feast day the practice of Mirovanije or anointing with Holy Oil, is given. The priest places a cross of blessed oil on the forehead of each parishioner at the end of the service.
During particular periods of the year, there are various greetings among the faithful. Some are Glory to Jesus Christ! Indeed He is Risen!
As to liturgical music, only singing Prostopenie or Chant is performed by the human voice. In a Byzantine Catholic Church, no musical instruments are permitted and the congregation is led by a cantor to sign responses and hymns.
There are also specific services, some being Vespers a night servicePresanctified Liturgy held during lentMoleben a prayer service of intercession which can be offered in honor of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary or a particular saint or topic as in the case of war, famine, etc.
Bells play an important part in Byzantine Catholic worship. They are rung to call the faithful to prayer prior to services and remind the congregation of the solemnity of the words of consecration for Holy Communion.
Lastly, at the beginning and the end of a funeral they are rung, per tradition, to denote the trumpets which will sound at the last judgement when the dead shall rise. Bells also adorn chains of the censer when the priest swings it.
There are twelve bells which represent the twelve apostles. Again, these bells draw attention to the service at the altar.Post-Roman Europe and the Byzantine Empire are often defined by difference, and they certainly considered one another foreign cultures.
But similarities did exist and are worth exploring. Before beginning, however, there is one crucial difference to address. Bishops of Rome / Popes (Roman Catholic Church) AD 42 - Present Day. According to Catholic tradition, Jesus founded the papacy in the first century when he chose St Peter, the leader of the apostles, to be his earthly representative.
Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. DIR Atlas. Aurelian (A.D. ) [An additional entry on this emperor's life (in French) is available in DIR Archives].
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Similarities and Differences Between Ancient Greek and Byzantine Art Words | 7 Pages. of the Roman Empire, Greek artwork had been spread throughout the region. It is important to note that the 'Byzantine Empire' is a modern term to describe what was the Eastern Roman Empire, the half of the empire that consisted, at different times, of parts of Italy (including Venice), Egypt, the Levant, modern Turkey (or Anatolia) Greece and portions of the Balkans as well as Libya.