Alternative medicine is defined loosely as a set of products, practices, and theories that are believed or perceived by their users to have the healing effects of medicine[n 1] [n 2] but whose effectiveness has not been clearly established using scientific methods[n 1] [n 3]     or whose theory and practice is not part of biomedicine[n 2] [n 4] [n 5] [n 6] or whose theories or practices are directly contradicted by scientific evidence or scientific principles used in biomedicine. Unlike medicine, [n 4] an alternative product or practice does not originate from using scientific methods, but may instead be based on hearsayreligiontradition, superstitionbelief in supernatural energies, pseudoscienceerrors in reasoningpropagandafraudor other unscientific sources. The meaning of the term "alternative" in the expression "alternative medicine", is not that it is an effective alternative to medical sciencealthough some alternative medicine promoters may use the loose terminology to give the appearance of effectiveness.
Incoming utility metering and block systems Fire hoses, fixed monitors, reservoirs and emergency fire pumps Waste treatment areas Maintenance buildings and areas Administrative buildings In addition, roads are necessary for emergency and maintenance vehicle or equipment access and require careful placement between process units and throughout the various sections of the plant.
Acceptable clearances for overhead pipe racks and other overhead equipment should be established along with lateral clearances at cross-roads and entrances to all facilities. Process Unit Layout Table The process units are contained within the specific block shown in the general layout.
A process layout requires considerations beyond specific equipment separation distances, some of which are shown in table Special buildings or structures and necessary clearance e. The toxicity and hazardous characteristics of the streams and materials within the units also vary widely.
Procedures for calculating potential leakage and toxic exposures from process equipment that can also affect separation distance are available Dow Chemical Company b.
In addition, dispersion analysis can be applied when leakage estimates have been calculated. Calculations based upon specific processing conditions and an equipment hazard evaluation may result in separation distances that differ from a standard matrix guide.
Extensive lists for a matrix can be developed by refinement of individual categories and by the addition of equipment. For example, compressors may be split into several types, such as those handling inert gas, air and hazardous gases.
Separation distances for engine-driven compressors may differ from motor- or steam-driven machines. Separation distances in storage facilities that house liquefied gases should be analysed on the basis of whether the gas is inert.
The process battery limits should be carefully defined.
They are the boundary lines or plot limits for a process unit the name derives from the early use of a battery of ovens in processing. Other units, roads, utilities, pipeways, runoff ditches and so on are plotted based upon battery limits. While unit equipment location does not extend to the battery limits, separation distances of equipment from battery limits should be defined.
Control rooms or control houses In the past each process unit was designed with a control room that provided operational control of the process. With the advent of electronic instrumentation and computer-controlled processing, individual control rooms have been replaced by a central control room that controls a number of process units in many operations.
The centralized control room is economically advantageous because of process optimization and increases in efficiency of personnel. Individual process units still exist and, in some specialized units, older control houses which have been supplanted by centralized control rooms may still be used for local process monitoring and for emergency control.
Although control room functions and locations are generally determined by process economics, the design of the control room or control house is very important for maintaining emergency control and for worker protection.
Some considerations for both central and local control houses include: Inventory reduction An important consideration in process and plant layouts is the quantity of toxic and hazardous material in the overall inventory, including the equipment.
The consequences of a leak are more severe as the volume of material increases. Consequently, the inventory should be minimized wherever possible.Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for.
The meaning of the term "alternative" in the expression "alternative medicine", is not that it is an effective alternative to medical science, although some alternative medicine promoters may use the loose terminology to give the appearance of effectiveness.
Loose terminology may also be used to suggest meaning that a dichotomy exists when it does not, e.g., the use of the expressions "western. The following methods are based on the analysis of a 25 g analytical unit at a sample/broth ratio. Depending on the extent of compositing, add enough broth to maintain this ratio unless.
His lectures are long.
He get side tracked sometimes. His study guides are not exactly the test however, study each concept thoroughly (he goes over the study guide). The genus Listeria contains 6 species: L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii, and L.
grayi (Table 1).L. grayi (28, 40) and L. Flashcard Machine - create, study and share online flash cards My Flashcards; Flashcard Library; About; Contribute; Search; Help; Sign In; Create Account.