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Race historical definitions During the Age of Enlightenment an era from the s to the sconcepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century.
Monogenism contends that all races have a single origin, while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin. Until the 18th century, the words "race" and "species" were interchangeable. Henri de Boulainvilliers[ edit ] An early scientist who studied race was Robert Boyle —an Anglo-Irish natural philosopherchemistphysicistand inventor.
Theories of Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton about color and light via optical dispersion in physics were also extended by Robert Boyle into discourses of polygenesis speculating that maybe these differences were due to "seminal impressions". The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest.
In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliersa believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary racist cultural construct. His theoretic racialism was distinct from the biologic facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism.
In his book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
In Systema Naturaehe labeled five  " varieties "   of human species. Each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place": The sub-species included the "four-footed, mute, hairy" Homo feralis Feral man ; the animal-reared Juvenis lupinus hessensis Hessian wolf boythe Juvenis hannoveranus Hannoverian boythe Puella campanica Wild-girl of Champagneand the agile, but faint-hearted Homo monstrosus Monstrous man: In Amoenitates academicaeLinnaeus presented the mythologic Homo anthropomorpha Anthropomorphic manhumanoid creatures, such as the troglodytethe satyrthe hydraand the phoenixincorrectly identified as simian creatures.
On the one hand, the harshest critics say that the classification not only was ethnocentric but seemed to be based upon skin-color. On the other hand, Quintyn points out that some authors believe the classification was based upon geographical distribution, being cartographically based, and not hierarchical.
KennedyLinneus certainly considered his own culture better, but his motives for classification of human varieties were not race-centered.
Thus, regarding this topic, they consider Linnaeus view as merely " eurocentric ", arguing that Linnaeus never called for racist action, and did not use the word "race", which was only introduced later "by his French opponent Buffon ".
John Hunter[ edit ] John Hunter —a Scottish surgeonsaid that originally the Negroid race was white at birth. He thought that over time because of the sun, the people turned dark skinned, or "black". Hunter also said that blisters and burns would likely turn white on a Negro, which he believed was evidence that their ancestors were originally white.
He believed that whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygenythe idea that different races had been created separately. His Account of the Regular Gradation in Man provided an empirical basis for this idea. White pointed to species hybrids such as foxes, wolves, and jackals, which were separate groups that were still able to interbreed.
For White, each race was a separate species, divinely created for its own geographical region. They also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial origins. They both said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting.
They believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken, and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.Why a Scientific Format? The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
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Article Summary: Here's a clear summary of the Linnean system of binomial nomenclature, the scientific way to name living things with a two part generic (genus) and specific (species) name. When I undertook the task of writing a scientific literature review article last year, I had hoped that a Google search would reveal a handful of how-to pages thoughtfully created by .