Image of Ardhanarishvara However, in a religious cosmology like Hinduismwhich prominently features female and androgynous deities, some gender transgression is allowed. This group is known as the hijrasand has a long tradition of performing in important rituals, such as the birth of sons and weddings. Despite this allowance for transgression, Hindu cultural traditions portray women in contradictory ways. Marriage Marriage is an institution that influences gender roles, inequality, and change.
This article is from the issue: A Way Forward by: This article examines two reasons why it is still debated and proposes a possible way forward. Inthe German sociologist and political economist, Max Weber, correlated an ascetic work value with capitalistic wealth.
Building on the work of Adam Smith, de Tocqueville, and Weber, new economic sociology arose in the s. So why is culture still debated? Development theorists and practitioners are concerned that they not repeat the mistakes of history, as expressed by the shortcomings of modernization theory in the s Brinkmann Modernization theory arose as an alternative to a Marxist theory of development.
It was popularized by economist Clark Kerr et al. However, in the s, dependency theory arose and exposed some of its shortcomings Frank Three of these shortcomings, expressed as concerns, are described below. Culture Treated as Enemy The first concern is that culture is treated as the enemy.
Therefore, if traditional culture is standing in the way of development, eliminate it—or so is the concern. Culture Treated as Static The second concern is that culture is treated as static and therefore deterministic. For example, the Indian economist and philosopher, Amartya Sen, has criticized the work of former USAID mission director Lawrence Harrison and Harvard political scientist Samuel Huntington for being too static in their view of culture Sen argues that history teaches the opposite: Cultures are malleable Fifteen years earlier, Indian scholar Yogendra Singh argued the same thing: Cultures do change Singhas did sociologist William Ogburn in his theory of cultural lag originally published in Ogburn So are cultures static or do they change?
Viewed through structuration theory then, cultural mores, norms, and structures are always being changed or reinforced as society participates or deviates from them.
In their chapter in their edited volume, Culture and Public Action, Vijayendra Rao and Michael Walton highlight a positive and negative case study in this regard.
The first follows a case study of development interventions in Sudan. Unfortunately, the policy interventions ignored culture and the intended results failed.
This approach to development has been called participatory development since the s, to distinguish it from earlier top-down approaches to development. Historically, these concerns and mistakes have made culture and development studies controversial. For the past years, the majority of studies that culture matters are based on country-specific data, or else they are qualitative or theoretical rather than quantitative.
As a result, these studies have difficulty penetrating to the level of policy-making.
Typically, policy-makers want large-scale, multi-country quantitative data in order to rationalize their decisions. This is understandable; they have to justify their policy to the public and citing a handful of ethnographies no matter how scholarly is hardly as defensible as cold statistics.
Most culture and development studies do not provide this. However, there are a few exceptions to this trend. However, these are the exception and not the norm. Max Weber was a masterful economist and sociologist, but his work, Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, remains a largely theoretical work.
De TocquevilleAnsteyBanfieldKappShermanHarrison and Kaganand Nkechinyere are first-rate studies of culture and development but are each bound to a single country. This makes the leap to policy formation more difficult to justify for policy makers.U.S. Army 1st Lt.
Audrey Griffith, points out an area of interest during a force protection drill to Spc. Heidi Gerke along the perimeter of Forward Operating Base Hadrian in Deh Rawud, Afghanistan.
The Pop Culture ESL Teacher. The Blue Werefox has eaten his fair share of rodents. Werefoxes prefer mice over other rodents but will happily eat . Compare countries Please select a country in the dropdown menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores.
Hofstede, a Dutch scholar which involved data on more than , employees of IBM representing forty countries. Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures provides five value dimensions of national culture which are: a) Individualism and Collectivism Individualism is the extent to which we value independence and personal uniqueness.
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by Hofstede's treatment of Chinese and Japanese values.
This paper discusses the treatment along the four value dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and.