An analysis of the american school a painting by matthew pratt

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An analysis of the american school a painting by matthew pratt

It has a mean orbital altitude of I presume the discrepancy is due to the fact that the ISS has an inclination of Elliptical Orbital Periods Just so you know, when it comes to planetary orbits and spacecraft trajectories, none of them are perfectly circular. It is just that so many of them are close enough to being a circle that a science fiction author can get away with using the above equations.

We call them Kepler's laws of planetary motion because Kepler found that the equations worked if you assumed the planet orbits were ellipses which are eccentric circles. Kepler's boss Tycho Brahe was dumped in the dust-bin of history because he stubbornly insisted that planet orbits were perfect circles.

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And when you get to things like spacecraft transfer orbits, some are not even close to being circular. Don't panic, it is easy to calculate. As long as you have the object's Periapsis and Apoapsis in meterswhich means the object's closest approach and farthest retreat from the planet it is orbiting.

Those numbers are easy to find, for example see Wikipedia's entry for the Moon.

An analysis of the american school a painting by matthew pratt

Periapsis called perigee ofkilometers and Apoapsis called apogee ofkilometers, right in the data bar on the right. Don't forget to convert the values to meters for the equations, e. Sometimes an orbit will actually be specified by the periapsis and apoapsis. For instance the Orion bomber's patrol orbit is described as a , km Terran orbit.

Given periapsis and apoapsis in meters, the Semi-Major Axis is: OrbitalVelocity unfortunately is a major pain. You see, the orbiting object moves at different speeds at different parts of its orbit. It moves fastest at periapsis and slowest at apoapsis.

Only if the orbit is perfectly circular does the orbiting object always move at the same speed. If you want the orbital velocity at a specific point in the orbit, you will specify said point by its distance from the primary.

The distance will be somewhere between periapsis and apoapsis, inclusive. Again it will be fastest at periapsis and slowest at apoapsis. Ellipse bounding box If for some reason you want to draw the orbit, it isn't too hard. As long as have a drawing program that can create an ellipse given a bounding box The Gimp, Inkscape, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator.

First you calculate the semi-major axis and the semi-minor axis. Draw the upper and lower sides of the box red lines in diagram above which are twice the length of the SemiMajorAxis in scale.

Draw the left and right sides of the box green lines which are twice the length of the SemiMinorAxis in scale. That is the bounding box. Draw a horizonal center line so it is equidistant from the top and bottom edges of the box.

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Draw a vertical line blue in diagram aboveand move it so it is one Periapsis scale length away from the right edge. Where these two lines cross is the location of the planet. Move the box so the cross-hairs are on the planet image. Use the "draw ellipse" function of the drawing program such that the ellipse fits in the bounding box.

That is the orbit. You can erase the bounding box now, you don't need it any more. THE HILL SPHERE It is greatly desired that satellites and space stations stay in stable orbits, because corporations and insurance companies become quite angry if hundred million dollar satellites or expensive space stations with lots of people are gravitationally booted into The Big Dark.

A good first approximation is ensuring that the orbiting object stays inside the parent's Hill Sphere. This is an imaginary sphere centered on the parent planet the planet or moon the satellite is orbiting. Within the sphere, the planet's gravity dominates any satellites.

For first approximation you have three players: The point is that Sol cannot gravitationally capture Supra-New York as long as all of the space station's orbit is inside Terra's Hill Sphere. You can calculate the approximate radius of a planet's Hill Sphere with the following equation: The same goes for units of mass for m and M.

An analysis of the american school a painting by matthew pratt

This equation assumes that the planet is in a near-circular orbit. If it has some weird eccentric orbit the Hill Sphere link has the more complicated equation.Matthew Pratt, The American School, Oil on canvas.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, gift of Samuel P. Avery, My awareness that this was an important but unasked question first arose from an encounter with Pratt’s painting decades ago, at a time when I had relatively little experience with early American art.

From The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Matthew Pratt, The American School (), Oil on canvas, 36 × 50 1/4 in. MU Grade Distribution Application Sunday, November 11, Term. the rockford carnegie library board of trustees will have a special meeting on monday.

october 15, at 7 pm in the library meeting room to discuss the employment and compensation of personnel. The Sacramento Bee offers advertising and marketing solutions to reach the people of Sacramento and Northern California.

Whether you are promoting your business or want to get the word out on a. The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs.

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