Many playwrights were taking new directions in their plays and there were also many new playwrights taking their chances at writing great plays. Women were starting to make appearances also as playwrights in the theatre.
Before World War II Europe The Modernist movement in architecture was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of Functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos opposed the use of any ornament at all and designed purist compositions of bald, functional blocks such as the Steiner House at Viennaone of the first private houses of reinforced concrete.
Behrens strongly affected three great architects who worked in his office: In GermanyGropius followed a mechanistic direction. His Fagus Works factory at Alfeld-an-der-Leine in Germany and the Werkbund exposition building at the Cologne exhibition had been models of industrial architecture in which vigorous forms were enclosed by masonry and glass; the effect of these buildings was gained by the use of steel frames, strong silhouette, and the logic of their plans.
There were no historical influences or expressions of local landscape, traditions, or materials.
The beauty of the buildings derived from adapting form to a technological culture. Later called the Bauhausit became the most important centre of modern design until the Nazi s closed it in While he was at Weimar, Gropius developed a firm philosophy about architecture and education, which he announced in The aim of the visual artshe said, is to create a complete, homogeneous physical environment in which all the arts have their place.
Architects, sculptors, furniture makers, and painters must learn practical crafts and obtain knowledge of tools, materials, and forms; they must become acquainted with the machine and attempt to use it in solving the social problems of an industrial society. At the Bauhaus, aesthetic investigations into space, colour, construction, and elementary forms were flavoured by Cubism and Constructivism.
Moving the school to Dessau inGropius designed the pioneering new Bauhaus —26 in which steel frames and glass walls provided workshops within severely Cubistic buildings. With insight, Garnier developed a comprehensive scheme for residential neighbourhoods, transportation terminals, schools, and industrial centres, and his plan became a major influential scheme for 20th-century urban design.
Garnier received no mandate to build such a city, but his town hall at Boulogne-Billancourt —34 recalled the promise he had shown, though it was not so innovative and masterful as might have been expected.
He conceived of the city as a symbol of the new technological age. It was an affirmative environment for the future, however, in opposition to the negating inhuman Expressionistic city of the future conceived by Fritz Lang in the film classic Metropolis.
The second generation of Expressionists centred their activities in postwar Germany and The Netherlands. As Germany was the centre of Expressionism, Paris was the stronghold of the advocates of a new vision of space, Cubismwhich Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso developed about Forms were dismembered into their faceted components; angular forms, interpenetrated planes, transparencies, and diverse impressions were recorded as though seen simultaneously.
Soon architectural reflections of the Cubist aesthetic appeared internationally. Interior spaces were defined by thin, discontinuous planes and glass walls; supports were reduced to slender metal columns, machine-finished and without ornamentation; and Cubistic voids and masses were arranged programmatically in asymmetric compositions.
The Dutch De Stijl movement was influenced by Cubism, although it sought a greater abstract purity in its geometric formalism.
Meanwhile Oud collaborated with van Doesburg for a time and vigorously proclaimed the new style in housing developments he built at Rotterdam afterHook of Holland —27and Stuttgart, Germany He directed the Weissenhof estate project of the Werkbund Exposition at Stuttgartcontributing the design for an apartment house.
Such practical problems failed to show his talent, which was not fully known until he designed the German pavilion for the International Exposition at Barcelona in The continuous spaces partitioned with thin marble planes and the chromed steel columns drew international applause.
It revealed a world of new forms—not Classical capitals and Gothic arches but ships, turbines, grain elevators, airplanes, and machine products, which Le Corbusier said were indexes to 20th-century imagination.
His love of machines was combined with a belief in communal authority as the best means of accomplishing social reforms, and Le Corbusier directed his attention toward the problems of housing and urban patterns.
An architectural attack, using standardized building components and mass production, was required.
In he also brought forth his project for a skyscraper city of 3, people, in which tall office and apartment buildings would stand in broad open plazas and parks with the Cubist spaces between them defined by low row housing.
The villa, Les Terrasses, at Garches, Francewas a lively play of spatial parallelepipeds six-sided solid geometric forms the faces of which are parallelograms ruled by horizontal planes, but his style seemed to culminate in the most famous of his houses, the Villa Savoye at PoissyFrance — In the period after the Russian Revolution of the erstwhile Soviet Union at first encouraged modern art, and several architects, notably the German Bruno Taut, looked to the new government for a sociological program.
The Constructivist project for a monument to the Third International by Vladimir Tatlin was a machine in which the various sections comprising legislative houses and offices would rotate within an exposed steel armature. Its foundation later was used for an outdoor swimming pool.
With its gigantic Corinthian columns, the building for the Central Committee of the Communist Party at Kiev showed an overbearing scale. After the Modernist movement spread through Europe.
Aalto and other Scandinavians gained a following among those repelled by severe German Modernism. In England, refugees from Germany and other countries, alone or with English designers, inaugurated a radical Modernism—for example, the apartment block known as Highpoint I, Highgate, London by Berthold Lubetkin and the Tecton group, The second generation of architects of the Chicago Schoolsuch as William G.
The greatest of all these new Chicago architects was Frank Lloyd Wright. Meanwhile, he scored a triumph with his administration building for the Larkin Company at Buffalo, New York, in destroyedwhich grouped offices around a central skylighted court, sealed them hermetically against their smoky environs, and offered amenities in circulation, air conditioning, fire protection, and plumbing.Literature: Literature, a body of written works.
The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution.
It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre. A biography of German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. one of the most prominent figures in the 20th-century theatre, Bertolt Brecht (Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht) was .
Western architecture - Late 19th-century developments: The Industrial Revolution in Britain introduced new building types and new methods of construction. Marshall, Benyou, and Bage’s flour mill (now Allied Breweries) at Ditherington, Shropshire (–97), is one of the first iron-frame buildings, though brick walls still carry part of the load and there are no longitudinal beams.
Furniture Research. Mark Golding and Paul Shutler have worked to create these pages for use by those interested in the development of furniture design and manufacture in the 19th and 20th centuries in . Naturalism in theatre in the 19th century, in its utmost simplest form, can be understood as the life like reproduction of life and human drama on stage.
However the true understanding of naturalism is far more convoluted than this shallow notion. The nineteenth century was a very important time in plays and playwrights throughout the world. Many playwrights were taking new directions in their plays and there were also many new playwrights taking their chances at writing great plays.